Importance of Granulation (large scale map) in Maps

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I created the above map using the tutorials in ESRI website for ArcGIS & the content from GIS Tutorial for Health. The map explores the Mammography clinics in relations to counties in Pennsylvania. The pattern of high concentration around cities of Pittsburg and Philadelphia is evident from the maps.

Few other observations from the map are:

Potter and Sullivan counties have fewer women aged 40-74, but still, there are no clinics. They are obvious areas of the state where clinics are needed.
Monroe, Clearfield, Jefferson counties have higher women aged 40-74, but a relatively
small number of clinics.
Philadelphia & Pittsburg surrounding areas have enough clinics, but remote northwestern and northeastern counties need more clinics.

The power of GIS can be further explored to look into the cities that sound to have more mammography clinics, in the map below :

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This map shows that though Allegheny county hosts Pittsburg, there is a pattern of concentration of clinics in the south relatively more urban part of the city. The pattern correlates with other healthcare facilities in the county that counts towards health equities in this county.

Granulation to the smallest unit possible brings in more refined data on what seems to be different in small scale.

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Surveillance of Hepatitis A Outbreaks: State-by-State Counts from 2017-2018

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Source

In the midst of newsworthy Hepatitis A outbreaks in Kentucky, San Diego, and Michigan, this map depicts the number of Hepatitis A incidents across the United States from 2017-2018. The number fluctuations in each state over the last year is alarming considering that there are few national regulations being put into place in the realm of food safety. Catherine Huddle from Food Safety News explains that although the CDC recommends that all children should be vaccinated at the ages of 1 and 2, ” the CDC has not recommended Hepatitis A vaccinations for food service workers” (Huddle, 2018). We can only hope that more information and awareness of Hepatitis A outbreaks can help force a decline in it’s prevalence. For more information of state reported Hepatitis A incidents you can visit the Food Safety News web page.

Preventive Dental Care for Children in GA – A look at the disparities.

Preventive oral health care is essential for one’s overall health. For children, it is important to address oral health needs earlier in life to prevent oral health issues from forming and progressing into adulthood. Below is a map of the percentage of children in Georgia with financial access to preventive dental care. This map comes from an article written by Cao, Gentili, Griffin, Griffin & Serban (2017) titled, “Disparities in Preventive Dental Care Among Children in Georgia.”

The authors of the article state that financial access is, “the percentage of children who either are eligible for public insurance or have the ability to afford dental care through commercial insurance or ability to pay out-of-pocket,” (Cao et al., 2017). Although there are plenty of children who are eligible to receive public funding for preventive dental care in GA, only 27.9% of the 4,123 dentists in GA who offer preventive dental services to children accept public insurance, (Cao et al., 2017).

What are your thoughts? What does financial access to preventive dental care mean to you? Is this an accurate representation of financial access? I invite you to read more of the article on the CDC’s website, here

GA preventive oral healh care for chilldren

Source: Cao S, Gentili M, Griffin PM, Griffin SO, Serban N. Disparities in Preventive Dental Care Among Children in Georgia. Prev Chronic Dis 2017;14:170176. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd14.170176.

Average Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) (µg/m³) By County (2011)

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Check out this map that shows the average fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) (µg/m³) by county for the year 2011. From the map we can see clusters with a higher average indicated by the darker shading. For instance, we can see a cluster consisting counties within for Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas and Wyoming. It is also apparent there are higher concentrations in many Southern, Midwestern and Northeastern states compared to western states. States such as, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee and Kentucky predominantly have a higher average.

By Julia Watson

NHSC and NCQA Certified PCMH Sites In Tennessee

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Check out this map that shows the number of National Health Service Corps (NHSC) sites in Tennessee as of 10/6/17 and the number of National Committee for Quality Assurance certified Patient Center Medical Home (PCMH) sites in Tennessee as of 1/23/18.

For more information on the Patient Centered Medical Home click here.

By Julia Watson

Rate of Chromosomal Birth Defect Cases By County Per 10,000 Live Births in Tennessee (2008 – 2012)

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In recognition of National Birth Defects Prevention month check out this map of Tennessee which shows the rate of chromosomal birth defects by county per 10,000 live births by county for the state of Tennessee for the years 2008 to 2012. From the map we can see counties such as, Williamson, Johnson, Scott and Giles had a higher rate of chromosomal birth defects, ranging from 27.01 to 36.00 per 10,00 live births. Given a mothers age is a significant risk factor for certain types of chromosomal birth defects with older mothers having a higher risk it would be interesting to compare the age demographics of these counties.

By Julia Watson

Cervical Cancer Mortality Rate By County ( 2012 – 2016)

MOTD01_18_18_CervicalCAMortality2012_2016

Check out this map that shows the mortality rate per 100,000 population for cervical cancer by county for the years 2012 to 2016. From the map we can see that the lighter shaded areas had a decrease in mortality while the darker shaded areas had an increase in mortality. Although cervical cancer is not the leading cause of cancer death among women [1] it is still of concern. To learn more about cervical cancer and  what The American Cancer Society recommends click here.

By Julia Watson